They could also have bought the phone for them and installed apps before giving it to them as a gift. If your instincts tell you that your ex or your current partner knows too much about you, it's entirely possible they're monitoring your activities," Cindy Southworth, executive vice president of the National Network to End Domestic Violence , told Motherboard in If the app shows us, this is a strong clue that someone may have been installing unwanted software onto your device.
You can bring your phone to a carrier like an Apple store to have them check it out, but even this is quite risky for someone potentially being watched. Security expert and activist Elle Armageddon wrote for Motherboard last year that decisions made about what to do next are very sensitive:. Having a spyware-infected device while planning to escape an abusive partner, or taking a compromised device while making a getaway, opens people up to more risks than the already extreme threat of being in, and subsequently leaving, an abusive relationship. Talking to other people about the abuser, making plans to get away, or searching for ways to delete spyware from your phone can all open you up to risk if your phone usage is being monitored.
According to Armageddon, carrying on using your devices and living your life as if nothing is amiss may be the safest thing you can do, until you have a plan for escape. Conducting important conversations on a new device, like a prepaid phone, or in-person with confidantes, is recommended. It can also include simple technical methods, such as human intelligence gathering and postal interception. Surveillance is used by governments for intelligence gathering, prevention of crime, the protection of a process, person, group or object, or the investigation of crime. It is also used by criminal organizations to plan and commit crimes, and by businesses to gather intelligence on their competitors, suppliers or customers.
Surveillance can be viewed as a violation of privacy , and as such is often opposed by civil liberties activists. A liberal democracy may have laws which restrict domestic government and private use of surveillance. Authoritarian governments seldom have any domestic restrictions, and international espionage is common among all types of countries. Concerns have been raised about surveillance with regards to the Internet of things.
Where surveillance technology is used for identification, monitoring, location tracking or to gain access to buildings and networks. The vast majority of computer surveillance involves the monitoring of data and traffic on the Internet.
There is far too much data on the Internet for human investigators to manually search through all of it. Therefore, automated Internet surveillance computers sift through the vast amount of intercepted Internet traffic to identify and report to human investigators the traffic that is considered interesting or suspicious. This process is regulated by targeting certain "trigger" words or phrases, visiting certain types of web sites, or communicating via email or online chat with suspicious individuals or groups.
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Computers can be a surveillance target because of the personal data stored on them. Such software could be installed physically or remotely. Through accessing this information, the government is able to obtain search history, emails, stored information, live chats, file transfers, and more.
This program generated huge controversies in regards to surveillance and privacy, especially from U. The official and unofficial tapping of telephone lines is widespread. About half of these letters requested information on U. Human agents are not required to monitor most calls.
Speech-to-text software creates machine-readable text from intercepted audio, which is then processed by automated call-analysis programs, such as those developed by agencies such as the Information Awareness Office , or companies such as Verint , and Narus , which search for certain words or phrases, to decide whether to dedicate a human agent to the call. Law enforcement and intelligence services in the United Kingdom and the United States possess technology to activate the microphones in cell phones remotely, by accessing phones' diagnostic or maintenance features in order to listen to conversations that take place near the person who holds the phone.
The StingRay tracker is an example of one of these tools used to monitor cell phone usage in the United States and the United Kingdom. Originally developed for counterterrorism purposes by the military, they work by broadcasting powerful signals that cause nearby cell phones to transmit their IMSI number , just as they would to normal cell phone towers. Once the phone is connected to the device, there is no way for the user to know that they are being tracked. The operator of the stingray is able to extract information such as location, phone calls, and text messages, but it is widely believed that the capabilities of the StingRay extend much further.
A lot of controversy surrounds the StingRay because of its powerful capabilities and the secrecy that surrounds it. Mobile phones are also commonly used to collect location data. The geographical location of a mobile phone and thus the person carrying it can be determined easily even when the phone is not being used, using a technique known as multilateration to calculate the differences in time for a signal to travel from the cell phone to each of several cell towers near the owner of the phone.
In response to customers' privacy concerns in the post Edward Snowden era,  Apple's iPhone 6 has been designed to disrupt investigative wiretapping efforts. The phone encrypts e-mails, contacts, and photos with a code generated by a complex mathematical algorithm that is unique to an individual phone, and is inaccessible to Apple. Comey and other law enforcement officials since even lawful requests to access user content on the iPhone 6 will result in Apple supplying "gibberish" data that requires law enforcement personnel to either break the code themselves or to get the code from the phone's owner.
Although the CALEA requires telecommunication companies to build into their systems the ability to carry out a lawful wiretap, the law has not been updated to address the issue of smart phones and requests for access to e-mails and metadata. Once the data has been collected, the GCHQ can hold on to it for up to two years. The deadline can be extended with the permission of a "senior UK official".
Surveillance cameras are video cameras used for the purpose of observing an area.
They are often connected to a recording device or IP network , and may be watched by a security guard or law enforcement officer. Cameras and recording equipment used to be relatively expensive and required human personnel to monitor camera footage, but analysis of footage has been made easier by automated software that organizes digital video footage into a searchable database , and by video analysis software such as VIRAT and HumanID.
The amount of footage is also drastically reduced by motion sensors which only record when motion is detected. With cheaper production techniques, surveillance cameras are simple and inexpensive enough to be used in home security systems, and for everyday surveillance.
Social Networking Sites and the Surveillance Society. Archived from the original on October 23, Get messages with "Messages Keystrokes" logging tool Read more The lawyer, who spoke on the condition of anonymity because he feared retribution, said he had grown suspicious that his phone had been hacked when he started missing WhatsApp video calls from Swedish telephone numbers at odd hours. Main article: Closed-circuit television. You can monitor your employees in order to see if they use their phone or their time for other reasons. Homeland Security Affairs.
As of , there are about million surveillance cameras worldwide. The growth of CCTV has been slowing in recent years. In the United States , the Department of Homeland Security awards billions of dollars per year in Homeland Security grants for local, state, and federal agencies to install modern video surveillance equipment. Speaking in , Chicago Mayor Richard Daley announced that Chicago would have a surveillance camera on every street corner by the year In the United Kingdom , the vast majority of video surveillance cameras are not operated by government bodies, but by private individuals or companies, especially to monitor the interiors of shops and businesses.
In the Netherlands, one example city where there are cameras is The Hague. There, cameras are placed in city districts in which the most illegal activity is concentrated.
Examples are the red-light districts and the train stations. They will be connected to a centralized database and monitoring station, which will, upon completion of the project, contain a picture of the face of every person in China: over 1. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DARPA is funding a research project called Combat Zones That See that will link up cameras across a city to a centralized monitoring station, identify and track individuals and vehicles as they move through the city, and report "suspicious" activity such as waving arms, looking side-to-side, standing in a group, etc.
At Super Bowl XXXV in January , police in Tampa, Florida, used Identix's facial recognition software, FaceIt, to scan the crowd for potential criminals and terrorists in attendance at the event  it found 19 people with pending arrest warrants. Governments often  initially claim that cameras are meant to be used for traffic control , but many of them end up using them for general surveillance. For example, Washington, D. The development of centralized networks of CCTV cameras watching public areas — linked to computer databases of people's pictures and identity biometric data , able to track people's movements throughout the city, and identify whom they have been with — has been argued by some to present a risk to civil liberties.
One common form of surveillance is to create maps of social networks based on data from social networking sites such as Facebook , MySpace , Twitter as well as from traffic analysis information from phone call records such as those in the NSA call database ,  and others.
Many U. These types of threats are most easily countered by finding important nodes in the network, and removing them. To do this requires a detailed map of the network. Jason Ethier of Northeastern University, in his study of modern social network analysis, said the following of the Scalable Social Network Analysis Program developed by the Information Awareness Office :. The purpose of the SSNA algorithms program is to extend techniques of social network analysis to assist with distinguishing potential terrorist cells from legitimate groups of people In order to be successful SSNA will require information on the social interactions of the majority of people around the globe.
Since the Defense Department cannot easily distinguish between peaceful citizens and terrorists, it will be necessary for them to gather data on innocent civilians as well as on potential terrorists. Some people believe that the use of social networking sites is a form of "participatory surveillance", where users of these sites are essentially performing surveillance on themselves, putting detailed personal information on public websites where it can be viewed by corporations and governments.
Examples of mostly behavioral characteristics include gait a person's manner of walking or voice. Facial recognition is the use of the unique configuration of a person's facial features to accurately identify them, usually from surveillance video. Another form of behavioral biometrics, based on affective computing , involves computers recognizing a person's emotional state based on an analysis of their facial expressions, how fast they are talking, the tone and pitch of their voice, their posture, and other behavioral traits. This might be used for instance to see if a person's behavior is suspect looking around furtively, "tense" or "angry" facial expressions, waving arms, etc.
A more recent development is DNA profiling , which looks at some of the major markers in the body's DNA to produce a match. The computers running the database are contained in an underground facility about the size of two American football fields. The Los Angeles Police Department is installing automated facial recognition and license plate recognition devices in its squad cars, and providing handheld face scanners, which officers will use to identify people while on patrol.
Facial thermographs are in development, which allow machines to identify certain emotions in people such as fear or stress, by measuring the temperature generated by blood flow to different parts of the face. In his paper in Ethics and Information Technology , Avi Marciano maps the harms caused by biometric surveillance, traces their theoretical origins, and brings these harms together in one integrative framework to elucidate their cumulative power.